Sam Dearin’s Minstrels to Swastika Players ……. p.1
Ted Tutty’s Vaudeville Co to Ye Olde Nigger Minstrels ……. p.2
SAM DEARIN’S MINSTRELS & COMIQUES
aka Dearin and Gardner’s Musical Comiques
(1883) Briefly known at the start as Dearin and Gardner’s Comiques, Sam Dearin is thought to have established his second Australian troupe in Tasmania immediately after he and Dave Gardner left Clark and Ryman’s Comedy Company. Their earliest known engagement was in Launceston on 27 July. By October the troupe was being identified as Dearin’s alone. Among the artists engaged were: George Gardner, Norah Martin, Amy Rowe, Johnny Gilmore. The troupe’s advance agent was Sydney Hall. After playing engagements in regional South Australia and Victoria, Dearin disbanded the troupe prior to rejoining Hiscocks’ Federal Minstrels in Melbourne on 8 December.
SAN FRANCISCO MINSTRELS 
aka San Francisco Minstrels and Sable Opera Troupe / Burbank and Demerest’s Celebrated San Francisco Minstrels)
(1857-1862) One of several US minstrel troupes with San Francisco in its name, this company originated in that city in 1854 from former members of the E.P. Christy party. It was reorganized for a tour of Australia in 1857 with a line-up included two performers who had previously toured the country – Dan Boley and Otto Burban (Backus Minstrels). The troupe’s Australian debut on 25 November at Sydney’s Royal Hotel was followed by extensively tours through New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Occasional line-up changes occurred with the new members mostly comprising American performers already in the country.
Original line-up: Tom Brown, O. N. (Otto) Burbank, W.A. Porter, G. W. Demerest, Dan F. Boley, J. O. Pierce and Dave Carson. Later members included. J. M. Foans, Charles Walsh, T. P. Brower, B. Florence, George Chittendon. Charlie Backus also appeared with the company briefly in 1859. Dave Carson likely joined the troupe for its Sydney season (or shortly afterwards).
SAN FRANCISCO MINSTRELS 
(1861-1862) The second San Francisco Minstrel party to be associated with the Australasian region, this troupe is believed to formed in Australia in early to mid-1861. It does not appear to have performed in the country, however, but rather toured New Zealand from around June 1861 up until at least December the following year. Of its six performers only one, George Chittendon (violin/alto), was associated with the other San Francisco Minstrels. The other members were: Walter Howson (banjo/baritone), O. P. Ritchie (tenor), J. J. Burgess (dancer/tambo), Harry Leslie (bones) and J. Taylor (singer). The troupe’s agent was M. L. Lay.
THE SERENADERS 
(1936) Elton Black put together The Serenaders for season at the Luxor Theatre, Perth, beginning 1 January 1936. Under the management of Don Nicol and J. Wilson. The troupe played through until late June, presenting both live variety entertainment and talkies. The stage direction was overseen by Black, with the musical aspects handled by well-known Perth music director/pianist Winnie Walker. Among the artists to be engaged were George Moon Snr, George Moon Jnr, Joe Lawman, Stella Lamond, Keith Connolly, Ron “Whacko” Shand, and Letty Craydon.
aka Shaw’s Royal Entertainers, Shaw’s Merrymakers and The English Pierrots
(ca. 1903-1914) Gerald Shaw (aka Harry Morewood Thomson) and Mary Connolly (aka Madam Marie Shaw/Clair Delmar) began touring as a family troupe a few years after returning to Australia from New Zealand. Featuring children Gladys and Keith the Shaws largely entertained regional around Australia audiences before settling in Western Australia in the early 1910s. Although Gerald Shaw became involved in the mining industry from 1912 onwards, the family continued to perform. By this stage Gladys (serio and dancer) and Keith (comedian) had established strong reputations as juvenile performers. Billed variously as Shaw’s Royal Entertainers, Shaw’s Merrymakers and The English Pierrots, the family also occasionally toured with other companies.
NB 1: Around 1902-1903 the Shaws were living in the Penrith/Nepean area of New South Wales. After returning to Western Australia in 1911 the family remained there for several years.
NB 2: After their parents separated Gladys turned solo, while Keith soon afterwards enlisted in the A.I.F.’s mining corps. Mary resumed Connolly as her stage name.
Image source: Sharon Connolly
SHIPP’S ENTERTAINERS / MINSTRELS
aka Shipp’s Tourists / Shipp’s Chicago Minstrels / Shipp’s Anglo-American Minstrels / Shipp’s Picture & Vaudeville Entertainers / Shipp & Hazlewood’s Empire Co
(1888-1901, 1908-1909) Edwin Shipp toured a number of his own troupes around Australia during the latter stages of the nineteenth century, typically alternating these ventures with engagements for other variety and dramatic firms and touring concerns. Known by various monikers, the Shipp-led troupes were also co-managed by his wife, Minnie, and from 1899 onwards involved their young children, Les, Rosie and Maudie. The tours were undertaken primarily in regional areas, especially New South Wales and Queensland, where Edwin Shipp’s reputation was strongest.
NB 1: The approximate time periods for each these troupes are: Shipp’s Anglo-American Minstrels / Shipp’s Popular Concerts (1888), Shipp’s Chicago Minstrels (1889), Shipp & Hazlewood’s Empire Co (1895), Shipp Family / Shipp’s Specialty Co (1899), Shipp’s Tourist Co (1900).
NB 2: Edwin Shipp is also believed to have managed and/or operated one or two of his own companies prior to securing permanent employment with Frank Smith in 1885 (as business and stage manager at the Alhambra Music Hall, Sydney). These troupes did not, however, tour under his name.
Image source: Clarence River Advocate (Maclean, NSW) 31 Mar. (1899), 5.
SLADE MURRAY’S GAIETY BURLESQUE CO
(aka Slade Murray’s English Specialty Co)
(1890-1891) Slade Murray’s company only played Melbourne and Brisbane’s Gaiety Theatres during its brief time together. Both engagements were played as double combinations. The first (as Murray’s English Specialty Co) was with the Melbourne theatre’s own combination – the Gaiety and Burlesque Co. Murray renamed his troupe the Gaiety Burlesque Co for Brisbane, the season also including C. B. Hicks American Coloured Minstrels. Murray disbanded the troupe in March 1891 in order to join Frank Clark’s show in Melbourne. Key members of his troupe were Percy St John, James Wilkinson and Amy Johns.
THE SMART SET
aka Smart Set Entertainers / Walter George Smart Set
(1892-1914, 1917-19) Previously known as the Light Opera Singers and The Follies, Walter George brought the Smart Set Entertainers to Australia via South Africa and America in 1912. The 10-member troupe disbanded in 1915 when he and partner Georgie Martin joined Edward Branscombe’s Dandies. They reformed the Smart Set in 1917, touring Australia and New Zealand through until 1920, at which time George and Martin established the Sunshine Players. The original line-up included Emily Kroll, Edward Elliot, Sunshine James, Mona Thomas, Tristram Greene and Edgar Holland (piano).
NB: This troupe should not be confused with a similarly named digger company operating between 1917 and ca. 1930.
SNAPSHOT REVUE Co
(aka George Ward Revue Co / Whirl of Mirth Co)
(1925-1928) Following Charles L Sherman’s departure from the Ward-Sherman Revue Company in late 1924, George Ward established his own troupe, bringing in Bert Le Blanc as his off-sider. Initially called the Snapshot Revue Company, and later known as the George Ward Revue and the Whirl of Mirth companies, it toured up until late 1928/early 1929 with a repertoire comprising old Ward-Sherman revusicals and new shows written by Ward (often in collaboration with others in the company). Among the performers engaged by Ward were Carlton Chase, Ern Delavale, Kathleen Ward, Curly Sherwood, Lily Vockler, Winnie Edgerton, and Grace Savieri.
Image source: Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate 22 Jan. (1925), 12.
(1900- ca. 1902) Based in the Rockhampton region, the Snowdrop Minstrels at the turn of the century, the Snowdrop Minstrels performed mostly for local charities, presenting a typical minstrel entertainment built around songs, comedy routines and specialty acts. One feature act was a trick cycle routine performed by Robert Nimmo and Harry Boldeman. Several of original members reformed the troupe during WWI under the name the Flying Squadron Concert Party.
SO & SO’S COSTUME COMEDY Co (Adelaide)
(1920-1921) Put together by Herbert Meyers, producer for J. C. Williamson’s Ltd, the So and So’s Costume Comedy Company played Adelaide’s al fresco Garden Theatre from 20 November 1920 through until 26 February the following year (after which time the grounds were required for the city’s Agricultural Show. Among the performers identified with the company were: Alf J. Lawrence, Eleanor Crane, Gracie Lavers, Lucy Sullivan, Harry Graham, Dorothy Manning, Kitty Elliot, Tom Preston and Eddie Perin, Glanmore Jones, Percy Mackay, George Welch, William Everard, Jack Neale, Elford Mack, Phil Kennedy, Pauline Bindley, Arthur Denton, Meta Breakwell, Maie Baird, Nellie Mackay.
NB 1: There appears to be no connection between this company and the one that played in Perth/Western Australia under the management of T.A. Shafto during the years 1922-1923 (see below).
SO & SO’S (Perth)
(1922-1923) Almost exclusively associated with Perth’s Shaftesbury Theatre, the So and Sod comprised some of the cream of Australia’s variety entertainers of the 1920s. The first line-up, which made its debut on 17 March 1922 under the direction of comedian Arthur Hemsley and musical director Harold Partington had been engaged from the Eastern states by the Shaftesbury’s producer, T. A. Shafto, and featured Elsa Brull, the Phillips Sisters, James Caldwell and Dot Brown. The entertainment largely comprised a mix of vaudeville, revue/revusicals, moving pictures, and even operetta. Later artists included Nat Hanley, Delavale and Stagpoole, Vince and Eva Courtney, Hat’s McKay, Will Rollow, Jack Kearns, Lola Hunt, Peter Brooks and The Dudleys.
NB 1: This company does not appear to have had any relationship with J. C. Williamson’s So and So’s Costume Comedy Company, which played Adelaide over the 1920-1921 period (see above).
NB 2: In June the So and So’s temporarily split in two, with a largely new line-up starting at the Shaftsbury while most of the previous company undertook a tour of the goldfields. It is currently unclear when the Perth season ended. Although the company’s name disappears from advertising from April 1923 onwards So and So’s continues to be mentioned in reviews until July.
STANLEY McKAY’S GAIETIES
aka Australian XI / Hollywood Gaieties / Gaieties of [….]
(1930-ca. 1953) Stanley McKay’s Gaieties was an institution throughout much of regional Australia for three decades. The company started out in March 1930 as the Australia XI, featuring George Lloyd and Clara Keating, but by the following month, with the addition of Nat Hanley, was renamed Stanley McKay’s Hollywood Gaieties. Later identified according to the current year (e.g. Stanley McKay’s Gaieties of 1939), hundreds of local and international performers were engaged by McKay over the years. Among the biggest names were Amy Rochelle, Charles “Ike” Delavale, Elton Black, Jenny Howard, Joe Lawman, Stella Lamond, Mark Errickson, and Vera Benson. The Gaieties also toured New Zealand on five occasions (1934, 1936, 1937-37, 1937-38, and 1939).
- See also: Stanley McKay
NB: The company was initially known as Stanley McKay’s Hollywood Gaieties (aka Hollywood Gaieties of 1930). The company’s last established engagement (to date) was in Cairns (Queensland) in July 1953.
NB 2: The Gaieties entertainment included at any given time one or more of the following: vaudeville, revue, revusicals and pantomime.
Image: The Gaieties Chorus, Rockhampton 1936. Source: New Theatre Australia Jan-Feb 1987, 10.
STANLEY McKAY’S NO 1 PANTOMIME C0
aka Stanley McKay’ New Pantomime Company / Mother Goose Pantomime Company
Stanley McKay’s second pantomime company was formed in 1914, a few weeks after the previous troupe returned from New Zealand and disbanded. Initially known as his New Pantomime Co., it was later referred to as the No 1 Co. when McKay established another simultaneously touring company in 1915. Headed by Jim Gerald (dame) and Essie Jennings (principal boy) the troupe’s feature pantomimes were Mother Goose, Old Mother Hubbard, Robinson Crusoe and Cinderella. The troupe disbanded after McKay and Gerald enlisted for active service in 1916.
STANLEY McKAY’S PANTOMIME MOVING THEATRE
aka Royal Pantomime Co / Stanley McKay’s Mammoth Moving Theatre / Stanley McKay’s No 2 Pantomime Co
Formed in 1910 Stanley McKay’s Pantomime Moving Theatre staged shows throughout Australia (mostly under canvas) until disbanding in 1914 after a New Zealand tour (as the Royal Pantomime Co). Its repertoire included Bo-Peep, Cinderella and Hey Diddle Diddle, along with several comedies (notably John F. Sheridan’s Fun on the Bristol). After being revived in 1915 with original members Bruce Drysdale and Phyllis Faye, the troupe disbanded for the final time in 1916 when McKay and Drysdale enlisted for military service.
(1913) Tom Selwyn and George C. Gilham of the Tasmanian Amusements Company put together the State Entertainers for a season in Launceston, Tasmania, in the lead-up to the State Election (23 Jan.). Advertised as comprising artists from both the town and from interstate, the initial line-up was headlined by ventriloquist Frank Cane (aka Kavello) and Conway and Synnot (direct from the Tivoli). After opening at the Mechanics’ Hall on 4 January the company moved to the Lyceum on the 11th, remaining there until early June with numerous line-up changes and occasional one-off shows in nearby towns. Among the biggest names to appear with the company were Charles Pope, Gus Franks and Roy Rene (then billed as Boy Roy).
- More details (research notes)
NB: The name State Entertainers was removed the Lyceum’s advertising from 5 June. An unnamed vaudeville show continued for several nights before closing in the lead-up to the Lyceum becoming a picture and vaudeville house under the proprietorship of former State Entertainers Les Vane and Con Carroll from 14 June (with Charles Pope as manager).
SUDHOLZ’S BIO-TABLEAU & WORLD’S ENTERTAINERS
aka Sudholz’s Moving Pictures
(1905-1908) Clamor Sudholz, manager of one of J. C. Williamson’s touring Bio-Tableau companies, purchased the equipment. Following the conclusion of the Melbourne season on 13 November he put together his own film and vaudeville show. After opening his account in Launceston (beginning 22 Nov.), Sudholz took his film and moving pictures show back to the mainland, playing seasons in Geelong, Adelaide, and Perth before the end of the year. He then crisscrossed the country until mid-1908, playing most states (sometimes more than once). Among the artists engaged were Robert Needham, Belle Sprott, Mabel Martin, Wynifred Harris, Fred Watson, Marshall Crosby and Rose O’Mahony (singers), J.J. Willis (raconteur), Carl Wolfe (magician), and Leslie Harris (monologist).
- See also: Charles Sudholz
NB 1: After settling in Perth in 1908 Sudholz initially managed theatres and tours for King’s Theatre. He later operated his own moving picture-houses in Perth and Geraldton.
NB 2: In 1907 Sudholz operated his Bio-Tableau show out of Perth’s Queen’s Hall for some three months (ca. April-June).
Image: Hobart Town Hall, 1906. Source: Linc Tasmania.
THE SWASTIKA PLAYERS
aka Swastika Costume Comedy Players / Swastika Vaudeville Players
(1923-1924) Prior to playing the New South Wales North Coast the Swastika Players had reportedly appeared “in other states, including West Australia, South Australia and Victoria, and [had] just concluded an exceedingly successful run in Sydney” (Northern Star 1 Nov. 1923, 4). No details of any engagements prior to Taree (NSW) in early October have yet been located, however (suggesting that it may have been known by a different name). The only other engagements identified to date were undertaken in Brisbane in December 1923 and a one-off engagement at the Goodna Insane Asylum in March 1924. The troupe may have toured regional Queensland during the interim.
- More details (research notes)
NB 1: Personnel incl. Vera Vincent (soprano), Graham Mitchell (baritone/comedian), Thelma Wallace dancer), Norman Gray (tenor), Frank Butler (comedian), Jack Wall (pianist/music director).
NB 2: Both the name Swastika and the gammadion cross were in common usage throughout Australia during the early 20th century, but without any connection to the German Nazi Party (which adopted the Swastika as its emblem in 1920). For most Australians, as well as many other countries around the world prior to the rise of the Nazi Party in the 1930s, the word and its symbol inferred “good luck.” For examples of its usage in Australia, including the books of Robert Louis Stephenson, the Boy Scout movement, various social and dramatic clubs, and as a fashion accessory see the Research Notes pdf attached to The Swastika Players.
Image citation details for entries without expanded biographies are noted at the bottom of the overview. All other image details are provided in the expanded PDF biographies.
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