The careers of the individuals presented in this section were mostly associated with the Australian variety industry. In some instances this may have been undertaken for only a part of the person’s career, but is nevertheless considered significant in terms of impact, influence or individual development.
For details regarding songwriters who were also variety performers see their respective entries in the Practitioners section.
Clutsam to Middleton ……. p.1
Nelson to Whaite ……. p.2
George Clutsam published his first composition at age nine and in his early twenties toured with various minstrel shows through Australasia and the East. After moving to England in 1887 he established himself as an accompanist and composer of both serious and light music. Among his works were several operas and a number of musical comedies, burlesques and plays. His biggest success was the Shubert-inspired 1922 musical play Lilac Time (later Blossom Time, 1942), for which he arranged Shubert’s music and composed additional music. .
(1853-1936) Music director, composer, arranger, musician
Engaged by some of the most significant entrepreneurs and troupes operating in Australia between the early 1870s and 1910s, Owen Conduit was a prodigious composer and arranger. He came to Australia in 1871, making his professional debut in Melbourne the following year at age 18. Over the next eight years found constant employment with minstrel troupes, and comic opera and burlesque companies. Conduit moved to Sydney in 1894, spending the next 10 years as Harry Rickards music director. He was later associated with Edwin Geach, Harry Clay and James Brennan among others.
Image and family history details courtesy of Margaret Hardwick.
Music director, arranger, conductor.
Percy Davis L.B.C.M. likely began his career as a vaudeville conductor around the turn of the century, his name being linked to Bert Howard’s Gaiety Entertainers as early as 1905. By 1907 he was leader of James Brennan’s National Orchestra (Syd) and in 1910 he toured Queensland for Harry Clay, later serving as music director at Clay’s Bridge Theatre (1912-1918). During his career, which continued into the late-1930s, Davis also worked for Frank Reis, J. C. Bain, George Marlow, and in the mid-1930s was music director at the Rushcutter’s Bay Stadium.
HERBERT DE PINNA
aka Dr Herbert Alfred De Pinna
After completing his medical degree at Cambridge University, Dr Herbert de Pinna trained at Middlesex Hospital (London) and served as a navy surgeon before immigrating to Australia in 1913. He initially practiced in Melbourne and later in the regional New South Wales township of Orange. In 1914 De Pinna found success as a composer, and over the next few years published upwards of two dozen popular songs, mostly for W. H. Paling. He had his greatest success with the Fullers’ pantomimes The Bunyip (1916) and Robinson Crusoe (1917). De Pinna returned to his medical professional in the early 1920s, moving to Queensland where he practised in Aramac, Marburg and Brisbane.
- A selection of Herbert De Pinna’s songs is available via the National Library of Australia’s online catalogue.
Image source: National Library of Australia
CYRIL “TINY” DOUGLAS
Violinist, music director, composer, arranger.
Cyril Douglas, was music director at St Kilda’s Palais de Danse in the early 1920s. He then toured the Fullers’ Australasian vaudeville circuit with the Charleston Super Six Symphonists (1925-28) before forming the Varsity Boys (1928-ca. 1937). The band, which often changed membership, toured mostly with revue companies (including those led by Nat Phillips and George Sorlie) up until ca. 1937, while also securing engagements with film exhibitors, and appearing on radio. At various times it was also known as the 4 Aces, Stage Band-its, and Palais Royal Band. In the 1940s Douglas led the State Havana Band (aka State Symphony Orchestra).
Image: Brisbane Courier 30 July (1932), 17.
Born and raised in Melbourne, Jessie Grey began to learn piano at the age of five and made her first public appearance at a church concert at Mentone the following year. After undertaking tuition with her cousin, Miss Sadie Woff and later with variety theatre music director ‘Professor’ Frederick Ireland, Grey began her professional career as an accompanist in 1902. By 1905 she was F. M. Clark’s music director at the Gaiety Theatre (Melb), and two years later toured Queensland with Harry Clay’s Waxworks and Comedy Company. She is also known to have been music director at Melbourne’s Bijou Theatre (1915) and the Adelphi (1916).
Image: Australasian Stage Annual 1905, 33.
NICHOLAS LA FEUILLADE
(ca. 1840s – 1915) Violinist, music director, composer, and conductor.
Nicholas La Feuillade is believed to have first arrived in Australia in 1865 with the Christy Minstrels. He later toured as music director with a number of companies, including Harry Rickards’ London Star Company, Hiscocks’ Federal Minstrels and the Cogill brothers. La Feuillade’s symphony Irish Patrol, which represents ‘the gradual approach, passing and disappearance of the Enni Killen Brigade’, is believed to have been first performed in Melbourne in 1897.
(1880-1958) Composer, singer, music arranger, actor.
One of Australia’s leading songwriters of the 1910s, Marsh Little was also a popular baritone. Many of his biggest hits were patriotic numbers like, and included “Boys of the Dardenelles,” “His Photo,” and “Women! You Have Nobly Done Your Share.” He was also one of the major songwriters for the Fullers’ 1916 Bunyip pantomime.
Trained as a concert pianist, Andrew MacCunn came to Australia in 1904 with the London Gaiety Company and remained for three years. After returning in 1910 to conduct J. C. Williamson’s Our Miss Gibbs he stayed with the Firm until his retirement in 1961. During that time he worked with the biggest names in Australian and international showbusiness, conducted hundreds of productions, and wrote countess songs, ballets, marches and incidental music for pantomimes and revues. MacCunn’s early pantomimes included Sinbad the Sailor (1911), Puss in Boots (1912), The Forty Thieves (1913), and Goody Two Shoes (1918).
Songwriter, librettist, music director, musician.
Associated for many years with W. H. Palings, both in Sydney and Brisbane, Harold Middleton began to establish his reputation as a writer, composer and accompanist in Brisbane around the early to mid-1920s. His pantomime, Hop O’ My Thumb was staged by the Famous Diggers in 1924, and he wrote at least one comedy sketch for the troupe during its lengthy Cremorne engagement. Another pantomime, Puss in Boots (1928) was also produced in Brisbane. A number of Middleton’s songs were published during the 1920s.
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